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In spite of problems with vaccine refusal so that less than half of young women (42 percent) are fully vaccinated, the rate of cervical dysplasia is falling in younger woman when the rate of all other sexually transmitted diseases has sky-rocketed.
For example, syphilis which was almost eliminated from the US 10 years ago has gone up 25 percent from 2014 to 2015, and gonorrhea and chlamydia have also increased markedly.
The CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices also announced some changes for the Hepatitis B, Tdap (Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis), and Meningitis B vaccines.
These changes will be official when reviewed by the director of the CDC and published in their weekly newsletter, the MMWR, but there is no reason to think the recommendations will be modified.
Different types of HPV are classed as either high risk or low risk, depending on the conditions they can cause.
For instance, some types of HPV can cause warts or verrucas. In 99 per cent of cases, cervical cancer occurs as a result of a history of infection with high-risk types of HPV.
Having HPV can increase your risk of cervical cancer and removing cancerous or precancerous cells from your cervix can reduce fertility.
And according to an article by Italian researchers in the journal Human Reproduction in 2012, 'HPV infection is associated with an impairment of sperm parameters, suggesting a possible role in male infertility.' In 2013, two Wisconsin sisters filed a federal claim, saying they believe a HPV vaccine caused their ovaries to stop producing eggs.
HPV infection, which is spread during sexual intercourse, has been linked with – although not conclusively proven – causing reduced semen quality and lower pregnancy rates.
These viruses are very easily transmitted and it is estimated that 90 percent of people in the United States who are not immunized will acquire one or more HPV strains within 18 months of initiation of intimate contact (the disease can be acquire just from the touching of mucous membranes together, not just intercourse.) Acquiring HPV may lead to cervical dysplasia and cervical dysplasia can lead to cervical cancer.
HPV is the only cause of cervical cancer and the most common cause of rectal, penile and oral cancer currently in the US.
STIs are associated with lower fertility, but vaccinated women with an STI history had about the same chance of becoming pregnant as unvaccinated women who had never had an STI.
Therefore, the researchers have concluded that the vaccine had a protective effect.